Fort Folly Habitat Recovery

Aquatic Habitat Rehabilitation Plan

Summary of Issues Identified by Resource Users and Stakeholder Groups

The following issues were identified by stakeholders:

  • Proper functioning of the aboiteau; is it allowing for fish passage?
  • We are following up with Agricultural New Brunswick for more information.
  • An as yet unidentified culvert -We are hoping to identify its location at our next meeting.
  • Debris in the creek (old plastic drums, car engines, car parts, etc.)
  • Proper harvest buffers along streams
  • General soil erosion prevention along the stream

Summary of Issues Identified from Geomorphic Assessments

Restoration efforts in the upper reach should focus on understanding in greater detail the source and movement of sediment and then designs can be implemented to narrow the channel along reaches where there is widening. Narrowing and stabilizing the channel width typically creates deeper habitat that is favourable for species such as the Atlantic salmon and brook trout. Restoration possibilities in the lower reach should focus on establishing a vegetated riparian buffer at a minimum of 5 m where farm fields border Demoiselle Creek.

Summary of Issues Identified from Information on Current Impacts

All of the culverts identified had some sort of debris or vegetation either upstream, within or downstream of the culvert that was impeding flow to some degree when they were evaluated by the DoT in the summer of 2012. General pesticide and/or herbicide concerns were described but without known individual users, this is difficult to touch upon at this point in time.

Restoration Activities Undertaken

Targeted Artificial Debris Removal

In 2013 debris was found and removed from three sites (Hawkes Road Bridge, Route 114 overpass, and Shepody Fish and Game access road) along Demoiselle Creek that had been first identified in 2010 (Figure 1-15). Not all of the material described in 2010 was found upon returning to these sites. It may have been subsequently cleaned up, shifted downstream by storm flow, or simply obscured by lush mid-July vegetation.  Other debris sites noted during the geomorphic assessment conducted in 2012 were also investigated.  Among these, debris was found at the Albert Mines Rd bridge site and the Wilson Brook headwaters near the “Underground Lake” Karst formations.

Figure 1-15: Debris removal in 2013, with monitoring in 2014 to determine if sites remained clean

Project Timeline

July 29, 2013 – Initial follow up survey of sites first identified in 2010 and 2012.

Sept 5-6, 2013 – Removed debris from all sites except Shepody Fish and Game access road.  Debris collected &  Aluminum beverage cans were donated to Sackville Boys and Girls Club

Sept 16, 2013 – Removed garbage from Shepody Fish and Game access road.

August 1, 2014 – Re-visited sites to confirm sites are still clean, and took photos in Figure 1-15.

Table 1-2: Debris clean up along Demoiselle Creek in 2013

Opportunities for Future Restoration Activities

Two possible restoration activities are described below, bank stabilization and culvert replacement. We do not anticipate any negative effects to the target species or their respective habitats. All of the prospective activities would improve the quality of the aquatic habitat for American Eel, Atlantic salmon and wood turtle. Bank stabilization could provide shade, reduce siltation, and provide leaf little and food sources for instream insects (prey of all three target species). Culvert replacement could help restore passage in areas where it is currently blocked by faulty infrastructure. Restoring passage will be most beneficial to iBoF salmon as they are the least able of the three target species to navigate past barriers. American eels and wood turtles are both capable and known to cross barriers via terrestrial terrain to navigate around barriers.

Bank Stabilization

Erosion is occurring along stretches where the vegetation buffer has been removed and turned into farm fields. The result is increased sediment loads and channel widening. Stakeholders and 2012 stream surveys both identified that sites without riparian buffer zones that were also experiencing erosion, were priorities for restoration. Selected sites may benefit from native tree and/or shrub planting to decrease soil erosion and maintain buffer/riparian zones along the creek. We will be working this season to identify landowners that would be interested in this option. Locations for possible bank stabilization activities are given in Table 1-3.

Table 1-3: Locations that could benefit from bank stabilization on Demoiselle Creek.

Table 1-3: Locations that could benefit from bank stabilization on Demoiselle Creek.

Estimated Person Hours Required:

  • One person, 1-3 weeks, to accumulate cuttings, seedlings, trees etc.
  • One person, 3 days to plot out site and remove any debris
  • Two people, 2 days to plant trees and/or shrubs

Equipment Required:

  • One truck (FFHR), pruners, loppers, mulch (possible source is Westmorland Albert Ltd.), 2 rakes, 2 shovels, gloves.

Sources for Trees:

  • Dogwood – Private property along Rte. 106
  • Willow- Berry Mills at NB Power site
  • Other possible trees could include:
  • Poplar – Macdonald Paving (Calhoun Quarry)
  • Balsam fir – Fort Folly First Nation Reserve
  • Red spruce – Fort Folly First Nation Reserve

Considerations and Permits:

  • Native, flood‐tolerant shrubs such as willow (Salix) or red osier dogwood (Cornus sericea) live stakes, or rooted alder (Alnus rugosa) shrubs have been identified as possible plants. These are typically planted with a spacing of 1m x 1m.

Considerations for shrubs:

  • Plant one or two year old nursery seedlings in a trench. If a trench cannot be made, remove some sod where the shrub is to be planted.
  • Plant in a zigzag row with a one-meter spacing to reduce weed competition (see
  • Mulch laid on the soil aids greatly in keeping soils moist and reducing weed competition.
  • Another method of establishing red-osier dogwood and willows is to plant fresh cuttings from established shrubs. If rooted plants are available, chances of survival will be improved.

Considerations for trees:

  • Prepare the planting area by ploughing furrows 7.5 – 12.5 cm deep (3 – 5 in.), 1.8 m (6 ft) apart. Plant trees in the furrows. Furrow wetlands in the fall and plant the following spring. Lacking a plough, or where land is rocky or hilly, remove 1 square foot (one ninth of a square metre) of sod from each planting spot with a shovel and plant the tree in the centre. During planting, carry trees in a pail containing a few centimetres of water. Use damp moss or wet burlap for extra protection of trees in transit. Fence the planted area if grazing or trampling by livestock is a risk. The establishment and development of shrub and tree plantings can take place more rapidly with proper care.
  • Plants lost to animal damage or winter kill off should be replaced.
  • Plants may be fertilized to enhance their growth but this practice should only be done in combination with cultivation or mulching to reduce weed growth.
  • Mulching with sawdust, straw or woodchips is often recommended to keep the soil moist and reduce competition from unwanted plants.

Permits:

  • Watercourse and Wetland Alteration Provisional Permit
  • Watercourse and Wetland Alteration Program (Fredericton – (506) 457-4850)
  • Species at Risk Incidental Harm Permit
  • Based on current surveys, there are no known locations of inner Bay of Fundy Atlantic salmon, American eel, or wood turtle within this watershed. However, as this habitat may be accessible to these animals, this permit may be necessary.

Any further development for this potential activity should continue to consult Bastien-Daigle et al. (1991) and the field manual for the community fisheries involvement program (Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources 1980).

Culvert Replacement

Stakeholders identified that there was a faulty culvert on Demoiselle Creek, which could be impeded fish passage. However, resource users were unable to identify the site of the culvert at our last meeting. We will revisit this potential issue in the future. There was also debate as to whose responsibility the culvert was, the DoT or the landowner. Once located, we will contact the DoT to enquire whether it is their responsibility. If it is, the faulty culvert will be reported. If it is the responsibility of the landowner and it is something that the landowner would like to address then we can try to source the appropriate sized culvert and submit a permit to DFO and Environment Canada for the work.

Permits:

  • Watercourse and Wetland Alteration Standard Permit
  • Watercourse and Wetland Alteration Program (Fredericton – (506) 457-4850)
  • DFO Authorization under Fisheries Act (Moncton office –  (506) 851-7768)
  • Species at Risk Incidental Harm Permit
  • Based on current surveys, there are no known locations of either inner Bay of Fundy Atlantic salmon, American eel, or wood turtle within this watershed. However, as this habitat may be accessible to these animals, this permit may be necessary.
  • Canadian Environmental Assessment Act may require CEAA review if machinery is going to be used in the watercourse.

 

 


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